Contact Information
  • Librarian for Slavic and East European Studies: Wookjin Cheun
  • Location: Herman B Wells Library E560
  • Phone: (812) 855-9413
Libraries & Subjects
last updated: 4/1/2013

Post-Communist Russia and the world-WE


          English publications

Aggarwal, Vinod K. and Kristi Govella, eds. Responding to a resurgent Russia: Russian policy and responses from the European Union and the United States. New York: Springer, 2012.

Alexeev, Denis. Russia and the system of transatlantic security: Perspectives for the future. Garmisch-Partenkirchen: George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies, 2006.


Allison, Roy, ed. Putin's Russia and the enlarged Europe. London: Chatham House, 2006.

Antonenko, Oksana and Kathryn Pinnick, eds. Russia and the European Union: Prospects for a new relationship. London: Routledge, 2005.

Baldwin, Heather M. Russia's future energy policies: A glimpse of Moscow's impact on EU and US energy security in 2025. Maxwell Air Force Base, AL Air Command and Staff College, 2009.

Baranovskii, V. G. Russia's attitudes towards the EU: Political aspects. Helsinki Ulkopoliittinen instituutti, 2002.

Barysch, Katinka. The EU and Russia: Strategic partner or squabbling neighbours? London: CER (Centre for European Reform), 2004.

Berger, StefanPaul Holtom. "Locating Kaliningrad and Konigsberg in Russian and German collective identity: Discourses and political symbolism in the 750th anniversary celebrations of 2005." Journal of Baltic Studies 39, no. 1 (2008): 15-37.

Bojcun, Marko. Russia, Ukraine and European integration. Florence: European University Institute, 2001.

Browning, Christopher. "Reassessing Putin's project: Reflections on IR theory and the West." Problems of post-Communism 55, no. 5 (2008): 3-13.

Chow, EdwardJonathan Elkind. "Where East meets West: European gas and Ukrainian reality." Washington quarterly 32, no. 1 (2009): 77-92.

Clemens, Walter C., Jr. "An alternative to NATO expansion." International journal 52, no. 2 (1997): 342-65.

David, Maxine, Jackie Gower, and Hiski Haukkala, eds. National perspectives on Russia: European foreign policy in the making. London: Routledge, 2012.

Dembinski, Matthias. After the Caucasian war: Engaging, not containing, Russia. Frankfurt: Peace Research Institute Frankfurt, 2008.

Dubin, Boris. "The West, the border, and the unique path." Russian politics and law 40, no. 2 (2002): 5-29.

Ekmanis, Rolfs. "Russia, the West, and the Baltics." Lituanus 41, no. 4 (1995): 5-28.

Emerson, Michael, ed. The elephant and the bear try again: Options for a new agreement between the EU and Russia. Brussels: Centre for European Policy Studies, 2006.

Eskilinen, Heikki, Ilkka Liikanen, and James Scott, eds. The EU-Russia borderland: New contexts for regional co-operation. London: Routledge, 2013.

Eyal, Jonathan. Who lost Russia?: An enquiry into the failure of the Russian-Western partnership. London: Routledge, 2009.

Fedorov, IU. E. and Bertil Nygren, eds. Russia and Europe: Putin's foreign policy. Stockholm: Swedish National Defence College Publications, 2002.

Gänzle, Stefan, Guido Müntel, and Evgeny Vinokurov. Adapting to European integration?: Kaliningrad, Russia and the European Union. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2008. 

Geistlinger, Michael, ed. Security identity and the Southern Caucasus: The role of the EU, the US and Russia. Wien: Neuer Wissenschaftlicher Verlag, 2008.

Glinkina, S. P. and N. E. Kulikova. The impact of EU enlargement on economic restructuring in Russia and future relations between Russia and the European Union. Wien: Wiener Institut für Internationale Wirtschaftsvergleiche, 2007.

Golunov, S. V. EU-Russian border security: Challenges, (mis)perceptions, and responses. New York: Routledge, 2013.

Gomart, Thomas. "France's Russia policy: Balancing interests and values." Washington quarterly 30, no. 2 (2007): 147-55.

Gower, Jackie and Graham Timmins, eds. The European Union, Russia and the shared neighbourhood. London: Routledge, 2010.

———, eds. Russia and Europe in the twenty-first century: An uneasy partnership. London: Anthem Press, 2009.

Gromyko, AlexeiLarisa Galperin. "Civilizational guidelines in the relationship of Russia, the European Union, and the United States." Russian politics and law 46, no. 6 (2008): 7-18.

Hallenberg, Jan and Håkan Karlsson, eds. Changing transatlantic security relations: Do the US, the EU and Russia form a new strategic triangle? London; New York: Routledge, 2006.

Haukkala, Hiski. The EU-Russia strategic partnership: The limits of post-sovereignty in international relations. London; New York: Routledge, 2010.

———. The EU-Russia strategic partnership: The logic of post-sovereignty in international relations. London: Routledge, 2010.

Haukkala, Hiski and Sergei Medvedev, eds. The EU common strategy on Russia: Learning the grammer of the CFSP. Helsinki; Bonn: Ulkopoliittinen instituutti, 2001.

Heinrich, Andreas. "Under the Kremlin's thumb: Does increased state control in the Russian gas sector endanger European energy security?" Europe-Asia Studies 60, no. 9 (2008): 1539-74.

Höhl, Kathrin, Harald Müller, and Annette Schaper. EU cooperative threat reduction activities in Russia. Paris: European Union Institute for Security Studies, 2003.

Huterer, Manfred. The Russia factor in transatlantic relations and new opportunities for U.S.-EU-Russia cooperation. Washington, DC: [Brookings Institution], 2010.

Joenniemi, Pertti. The Georgian-Russian conflict: A turning-point? Copenhagen, Denmark: Danish Institute for International Studies, 2010.

Kanet, Roger E. and Maria Raquel Freire, eds. Competing for influence: The EU and Russia in post-Soviet Eurasia. Dordrecht: Republic of Letters, 2012.

———, eds. Russia and European security. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Republic of Letters, 2012.

Kantor, Vladimir. "Is Russia destined for a European future?" Russian politics and law 37, no. 3 (1999): 5-16.

Knudsen, Olav, ed. Russia and the new Europe: Borderlands and integration: Proceedings of the Annual Autumn Conference of the SIIA Research Programme on Questions of Special Significance in International Security, Stockholm, 22 November 2005. Stockholm: Swedish Institute of International Affairs, 2006.

Koval’skii, Nikolai Aleksandrovich, ed. Europe, the Mediterranean, Russia: Perception of strategies. Moscow: Interdialect+, 1998.

Krastev, Ivan, Mark Leonard, Dimitar Bechev, Jana Kobzová, and Andrew Wilson. The spectre of a multipolar Europe. London: European Council on Foreign Relations, 2010.


Krastev, Ivan, Mark Leonard, and Andrew Wilson, eds. What does Russia think? London: European Council on Foreign Relations, 2009.

Larsen, Henrik Boesen Lindbo. "The Russo-Georgian War and beyond: Towards a European great power concert." European security 21, no. 1 (2012): 102-21.

Leonard, Mark. A power audit of EU-Russia relations. London: European Council on Foreign Relations, 2007.

Löwenhardt, John. Stuck in the middle: The shared neighbourhood of the EU and Russia, 2000-2005. The Hague: Netherlands Institute of International Relations "Clingendael", 2005.


Lukyanov, Fyodor. "Russia-EU: The partnership that went astray." Europe-Asia studies 60, no. 6 (2008): 1107-19.

Lynch, Dov. Russia faces Europe. Paris: European Union Institute for Security Studies, 2003.

———, ed. What Russia sees. Paris: Institute for Security Studies, European Union, 2005.


Mankoff, Jeffrey. "Russia and the West: Taking the longer view." Washington quarterly 30, no. 2 (2007): 123-35.

Makarychev, Andrey S. Russia and its 'new security architecture' in Europe: A critical examination of the concept. Brussels: Centre for European Policy Studies, 2009.

Makarychev, A. S. Russia's discursive contstruction of Europe and herself: Towards new spatial imagery. The four spaces and four freedoms. An exercise in sematic deconstruction of the EU discourse. Nizhnii Novgorod: Nizhny Novgorod Linguistic University, 2006.

Malfliet, Katlijn and Lien Verpoest, eds. Russia and Europe in a changing international environment. Leuven: Leuven University Press, 2001.

Malfliet, Katlijn, Lien Verpoest, and Evgeny Vinokurov, eds. The CIS, the EU and Russia: Challenges of integration. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.


Mankoff, Jeffrey. "Russia and the West: Taking the longer view." Washington quarterly 30, no. 2 (2007): 123-35.

Marsh, Rosalind. "The nature of Russia's identity: The theme of 'Russia and the West' in post-Soviet culture." Nationalities papers 35, no. 3 (2007): 555-78.

Miller, Robert F. "Is one Germany better than two?: Russo-German relations, past, present, future." European studies journal 10, no. 1 (1993): 225-44.

Monaghan, Andrew, ed. The indivisibility of security: Russia and Euro-Atlantic security. Rome: NATO Defense College, 2010.

Motyl, Alexander J., Blair A. Ruble, and Lilia Shevtsova, eds. Russia's engagement with the west: Transformation and integration in the twenty-first century. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe, 2005.

Novikov, Denis. "'Anti-Westernism' as a strategy." Russian social science review 50, no. 2 (2009): 41-49.

Novikov, Denis and Larisa Galperin. "'Anti-Westernism' as a strategy: Distinctive behaviors of the contemporary Russian elite." Russian politics and law 46, no. 6 (2008): 19-27.

Ordzhonikidze, Mariia and Larisa Galperin. "Russian perceptions of Western values." Russian social science review 49, no. 6 (2008): 4-29.

———. "Russians' perceptions of Western values." Russian politics and law 46, no. 3 (2008): 43-68.

Perovic, Jeronim. "Coming closer or drifting apart?" CIAO [Columbia international affairs online] (2003).

Pinder, John and IUrii Vital’evich Shishkov. The EU & Russia: The promise of partnership. London: Federal Trust, 2002.

Podberezkin, Aleksei. "National security." Russian politics and law 37, no. 5 (1999): 31-50.

Prozorov, Sergei. The Russian Northwestern Federal District and the EU's northern dimensions: The emergence of a new political subject and its implications for EU-Russian regional cooperation. Copenhagen, Denmark: Danish Institute for International Studies, 2004.

———. Understanding conflict between Russia and the EU: The limits of integration. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.

Rahr, Alexander G. "Germany and Russia: A special relationship." Washington quarterly 30, no. 2 (2007): 137-45.

Roberts, Cynthia. Russia and the European Union: The sources and limits of "special relationships." Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2007.

Roth, Mathias. Bilateral disputes between EU member states and Russia. Brussels: Centre for European Policy Studies, 2009.

Sagramoso, Domitilla. Russia's western orientation after 11th September: Russia's enhanced co-operation with NATO and the European Union. Rome: Rubbettino Editore, 2004.

Schuette, Rolf. E.U.-Russia relations: Interests and values: A European perspective. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2004.

Senokosov, Yuri and Edward Skidelsky, eds. Russia and the European Union. Moscow, London: Moscow School of Political Studies; Centre for Global Studies, 2002.

Sergunin, A. A. The EU-Russia common space on external security: Prospects for cooperation. Nizny Novgorod: Nizhny Novgorod State Linguistic University Press, 2011.

Shmelyov, Nikolai. "Russia and present-day Europe: A view from both sides." Social sciences: A quarterly review of the Russian Academy of Sciences 36, no. 4 (2005): 3-16.

Smith, Mark A. Contemporary Russian perceptions of Euro-Atlanticism. [Camberley, Surrey]: Conflict Studies Research Centre, Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, 2002.

———. Russia & the EU under Putin. [Camberley, Surrey]: Defence Academy of the United Kingdom, Conflict Studies Research Centre, 2004.

Smith, Martin A. Russia and NATO since 1991: From Cold War through cold peace to partnership? London: Routledge, 2006.

Smith, Martin A. and Graham Timmins. The European Union, NATO & Russia. London: Routledge, 2003.

Snyder, Jack. "Russian backwardness and the future of Europe." Daedalus 123, no. 2 (1994): 179-201.

Stehenmuller, Constanze. "Germany's Russia question." Foreign afairs 88, no. 2 (2009): 89-100.

Stent, A. "Russia's economic revolution and the West." Survival 37, no. 1 (1995): 121-43.

Straus, Ira. "Russia's potential futures in the Euro-Atlantic-OECD world." Demokratizatsiya: The journal of post-Soviet democratization 9, no. 4 (2001): 485-97. 

Surovell, Jeffrey. "Deception and farce in post-Soviet Russian policy vis-a-vis NATO's expansion." Journal of Slavic military studies 25, no. 2 (2012): 162-82.

Trenin, Dmitri. "Russia leaves the West." Foreign affairs 85, no. 4 (2006): 87-96.

Trenin, Dmitrii V. Getting Russia right. Moscow: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2007.

Tunjic, Filip and Halit Daci, eds. Stability and security of Eastern and Southeastern Europe: Collection of studies. Ljubljana: Center for Strategic Studies, 1997.

Vavilov, Andrej and Joanna M. Schemm, eds. Russia and the West, the West and Russia. Zurich: Center for Security Studies and Conflict Research, ETH Zentrum SEI, 2002.

Wagnsson, Charlotte. Russian political language and public opinion on the West, NATO, and Chechnya: Securitisation theory reconsidered. Stockholm: University of Stockholm, 2000.

Walker, Martin. "Why Russia needs NATO." Demokratizatsiya: The journal of post-Soviet democratization 5, no. 4 (1997): 536-42.

Weihe, Thomas and Horst Rödinger, eds. Russia and the West, opportunities for a new partnership: 131st Bergedorf Round Table, June 24th-26th, 2005, Potsdam/Berlin. Hamburg: Körber-Stiftung, 2005.

Zhurkin, V. and N. A. Koval’skii, eds. European Union--Russia: Balkan situatian. Moskva: Interdialect+, 2000. 

          Russian publications

Afanas’ev, V. V., ed. Rossiia i Evropa: Natsii v epokhu globalizatsii. Moskva: Kanon+, 2009.

Alchinov, V. M. Perspektivy razvitiia ekonomicheskogo sotrudnichestva Rossii s ob”edenennym Evrosoiuzom. Moskva: Diplomaticheskaia Akademiia MID Rossii, 2004.

———. SNG--Rossiia--Evrosoiuz: Problemy i perspektivy integratsii. Moskva: Vostok-Zapad, 2008.

Arbatova, N. K. Iranskaia problema v otnosheniiakh Rossii i ES. Moskva: Komitet "Rossiia v ob”edinennoi Evrope", 2006.

Ashrafian, Viktoriia. Obshchee evropeiskoe ekonomicheskoe prostranstvo: Perspektivy vzaimootnoshenii Rossii i ES. Moskva: Delo, 2004.

Bar, E. "Mezhdu protektoratom i samoopredeleniem: Evropa v silovom pole mezhdu Amerikoi i Rossiei." Sovremennaia Evropa = Contemporary Europe 2 (2000): 15-27.

Barabanov, O. N. and Klimenko A. I. Perspektivy formirovaniia obshchego ideologicheskogo prostranstva Rossii i Evropeiskogo Soiuza: Monografiia. Moskva: MGIMO-Universitet, 2010.

Boikov, P. V. Razvitie otnoshenii Evrosoiuza i SNG. Minsk: Pravo i Ekonomika, 2008.

Bordachev, T. "Evropeiskii mir posle 1989 goda." Rossiia v global’noi politike 5, no. 3 (2007): 8-18.

Bordachev, T. V. Novyi strategicheskii soiuz: Rossiia i Evropa pered vyzovami XXI veka-- vozmozhnosti "bol’shoi sdelki". Moskva: Evropa, 2009.

Danilov, D. A. Zapadnaia Evropa na post-maastrikhtskom etape: Razvitie integratsii v sfere bezopasnosti. Moskva: In-t Evropy RAN, 1994.

Deriabin, Iu S. "Severnoe izmerenie" politiki Evropeiskogo Soiuza i interesy Rossii. Moskva: Ekslibris-Press, 2000.

Entin, M. L., L. N. Galenskaia, and N. Iu Kaveshnikov, eds. Perspektivy razvitiia otnoshenii mezhdu Rossiei i ES: Pravo, politika, energetika. Sankt-Peterburg: Rossiia-Neva, 2008.

Fedorov, V. P., ed. Rossiia i ob”ediniaiushchaiasia Evropa: Perspektivy sotrudnichestva. Moskva: In-t Evropy RAN 2007.


Fritts, E. "Rossiia pri Putine: Sostoianie i perspektivy partnerstva mezhdu Rossiei, Germaniei i ES." Mir peremen 3 (2005): 59-72.

Galkin, F. A. Evropeiskaia integratsiia i Rossiia: Regional’nyi aspekt. Sankt-Peterburg: SPbGUEF, 2005.

Grinevskii, O. A., D. A. Danilova, and V. V. Zhurkina. K bezopasnoi Evrope--vklad Rossii. Moskva: In-t Evropy RAN, 2007.

Iemel’ianova, N. M. Rossiia i Evrosoiuz: Sopernichestvo i partnerstvo. Moskva: Mezhdunarodnye Otnosheniia, 2009.

Iudanov, IU. I., ed. Rasshirenie ES na vostok: Pozitsii stran Evrosoiuza. Moskva: IMEMO RAN, 2002.


Iurgens, I. and S. Kulik. Vechnye sputniki: Rossiia i Evropa v meniaiushchemsia mire. Moskva: Ekon-inform, 2013. [available online at]

Kaveshnikov, N. IU., ed. Evrosoiuz i Rossiia: Printsipy doveriia i strategii dialoga v XXI veke. Moskva: RGGU, 2009.

Khudolei, K. K., IU. G. Akimov, and A. Izotov, eds. Rossiia i Evropeiskii Soiuz v poiskakh optimal’noi modeli sblizheniia: Materialy mezhdunarodnoi nauchnoi konferentsii fakul’teta mezhdunarodnykh otnoshenii Sankt-Peterburgskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 20 oktiabria 2006 g. Sankt-Peterburg: Izd-vo S.-Peterburgskogo Universiteta, 2007. 

______, eds. Rossiia i Evropeiskii Soiuz posle rasshireniia: Novye perspektivy i novye problemy: Materialy mezhdunarodnoi nauchnoi konferentsii, prokhodivshei na fakul’tete mezhdunarodnykh otnoshenii Sankt-Peterburgskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 7 oktiabria 2005 g. Sankt-Peterburg: Izd-vo S.-Peterburgskogo Universiteta, 2007.

Khudolei, K. K., V. S. Iag’ia, and IU. G. Akimov, eds. Partnerstvo Rossii i Evropeiskogo Soiuza posle rasshireniia: Strategicheskoe planirovanie i povsednevnaia realizatsiia: Materialy mezhdunarodnoi nauchnoi konferentsii, 24-25 oktiabria 2003 g. Sankt-Peterburg: Izd-vo S.-Peterburgskogo Universiteta, 2004.

Kolobov, O. A., ed. Rossiia i NATO posle balkanskogo krizisa: Materialy mezdunarodnoi nauchnoi konferentsii, 17-18 noiabria 1999 goda. Nizhnii Novgorod: MOR, 2000.

———, ed. Rossiia-SShA-NATO: Dinamika sovremennykh vzaimootnoshenii i vozmozhnosti preodoleniia krizisa doveriia. Moskva: AVN, 2000.

Kondrat’eva, N. B. Regiony Rossii i Evropeiskogo Soiuza na puti k stroitel’stvu obshchego ekonomicheskogo prostranstva. Moskva: In-t Evropy RAN, 2008.


Kulik, S. Rossiia - Evropeiskii Soiuz: O razvilkakh "strategicheskogo partnerstva". Moskva: INSOR, 2012.

Maksimychev, I. F. Kontinent na pereput’e: Novaia Rossiia i novaia Germaniia v novoi Evrope. Moskva: In-t Evropy RAN, 1999.

Maksimychev, I. F. Ugrozy bezopasnosti Rossii, sviazannye s nachalom rasshireniia NATO. Moskva: In-t Evropy RAN, 1998.

Medvedev, R. A. and Zh. A. Medvedev. Rossiia i Zapad v kontse XX veka: Glavy iz kn. "Puti Rossii". Moskva: Prava Cheloveka, 1997.

Mikhailenko, V. I., ed. Rossiia i Evropeiskii Soiuz: Strategiia vzaimodeistviia. Materialy mezhdunarodnoi nauchnoi konferentsii. Ekaterinburg, 17-19 aprelia 2002 g. Ekaterinburg: Izd-vo Ural’skogo Universiteta, 2003.

Mitrofanov, A. V. Rossiia pered raspadom, ili, vstupleniem v Evrosoiuz. Moskva: Ad Marginem, 2005.

Morozov, V. E. Rossiia i Evropeiskii soiuz v bol’shoi Evrope--novye vozmozhnosti i starye bar’ery : materialy mezhdunarodnoi nauchnoi konferentsii, 20-21 sentiabria 2002 g. Sankt-Peterburg: Izd-vo S.-Peterburgskogo universiteta, 2003.

Nosov, M. G. Rossiia i ES v TSentral’noi Azii. Moskva: In-t Evropy RAN : Russkii suvenir, 2008.

———. Rossiia i Evropeiskii Soiuz v politsentrichnom mire: Pervoe desiatiletie XXI veka. Moskva: In-t Evropy RAN, 2009.

Nosov, M. G., S. M. Rogov, and N. P. Shmelev. "Rossiia i Zapad posle 11 sentiabria 2001 goda." SShA - Kanada: Ekonomika. Politika. Kul’tura 6 (2002): 3-18.

Romanov, S. L. Paradiplomatiia evropeiskikh granits i Rossiia. Moskva: Nauchnaia Kniga, 2001.

Rubinskii, Iu. I. and I. F. Maksimychev. Rossiia i franko-germanskii tandem: Istoriia, problemy, perspektivy: Obraz Rossii v vedushchikh derzhavakh ES. Moskva: In-t Evropy RAN, 2009.

Strezhneva, M. V. "Rossiia mezhdu Evropoi i SShA." In Meniaiushchiisia mir i Rossiia: Sbornik statei edited by A. G. Lisov, 8-29. Moskva: IMEMO RAN, 2004.

Sumarokov, V. N. and N. V. Sumarokov. Rasshirenie Evropeiskogo soiuza i vneshneekonomicheskie sviazi Rossii. Moskva: "Finansy i Statistika", 2006.

Svak, Diula and Ilona Kish, eds. Obraz Rossii s tsentral'no-evropeiskim aktsentom: Sbornik statei i materialov. Budapesht: Russica Pannonicana, 2010.

Trenin, Dmitrii, ed. Rossiia i osnovnye instituty bezopasnosti v Evropy: Vstupaia v XXI vek. Moskva: S & P, 2000.

Utkin, A. I. Rossiia i Zapad: Istoriia tsivilizatsii. Moskva: Gardariki, 2000.

———. Vyzov Zapada i otvet Rossii. Moskva: Algoritm, 2002.

Vasil’eva, N. A., S. M. Vinogradova, and O. N. Barabanov. Rossiia i Evropeiskii Soiuz v poiskakh paradigmy ustoichivykh otnoshenii: Materialy mezhdunarodnoi konferentsii, provodivsheisia na fakultete mezhdunarodnykh otnoshenii Sankt-Peterburgskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 27-28 iiunia 2008 g. Sankt-Peterburg: SPbGU, 2009.

Voronov, K. V. "Strany Severa i novaia transformatsiia sistemy evropeiskoi bezopasnosti v postbipoliarnyi period (1990-e gody)." In Severnaia Evropa: Problemy istorii: Sbornik nauchnykh trudov edited by A. O Chubar'ian and O. V. Chernysheva, 265-84. Moskva: Progress-Akademiia, 1999.

Zhurkin, V. Evropeiskaia armiia: Porazheniia i pobedy: Obshchaia politika bezopasnosti i oborony Evropeiskogo Soiuza. Moskva: Mezhdunarodnye Otnosheniia, 2012.

Zhurkin, V. V., ed. Rossiia i Zapad posle 11 sentiabria: Soderzhanie i perspektivy vzaimootnoshenii: Materialy "kruglogo stola". Moskva: Ekslibris-Press, 2002.

Zinov'ev, Aleksandr. O Rossii, o Zapade, o zagranitse, i o sebe. Moskva: ISPI RAN, 1998.

last updated: 4/1/2013