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last updated: 11/17/2010

Revolutions of 1989: Other important political figures

 

Jozsef Antall | Nicolae Ceausescu | Erich Honecker | Gustav Husak | Ion Iliescu | Wojciech Jaruzelski | Janos Kadar | Vaclav Klaus | Tadeusz Mazowiecki | Adam Michnik | Petur Mladenov | Zhelyu Zhelev | Todor Zhivkov

 

Jozsef Antall (1932-1993): The first post-Communist prime minister of Hungary (1990-93). He was a librarian, among other things, before he rose to power.

 

Antall, József. Selected Speeches and Interviews (1989-1993). Budapest: József Antall Foundation, 2008.
Bigler, Robert M. "From Communism to Democracy: Hungary's Transition Thirty-Five Years after the Revolution." East European Quarterly 25, no. 4 (1991): 437-61.
Brown, J. F. "A Challenge to Political Values." RFE/RL Research Report 1, no. 40 (1992): 23-25.
De Weydenthal, Jan B. "The Cracow Summit." Report on Eastern Europe 2, no. 43 (1991): 27-29.
Ingram, Judith. "The Party's Just Begun." Uncaptive Minds 6, no. 2 (1993): 27-31.
Jokay, Charles Z. "Hungarian-Soviet Relations in the 1990s: Stability through Constant Change," in East-Central Europe and the USSR, ed. Richard F. Staar (NY: St. Martin's Press, 1991), 165-85.
Kis, Janos. "Postcommunist Politics in Hungary." Journal of Democracy 2, no. 3 (1991): 3-15.

Menges, Constantine C., ed. Transitions from Communism in Russia and Eastern Europe: Analysis and Perspectives. Washington, D.C.: Uniiversity Press of America, 1994.

Okolicsanyi, Karoly. "The Antall Government's First Budget." Report on Eastern Europe 2, no. 5 (1991): 15-19.
Oltay, Edith. "Hungarian Democratic Forum Opts for Centrist Policy." RFE/RL Research Report 2, no. 9 (1993): 22-26.
Pataki, Judith. "The Hungarian Cabinet Reshuffle." RFE/RL Research Report 2, no. 12 (1993): 42-46.
———. "Hungarian Government Midway through Its First Term." RFE/RL Research Report 1, no. 24 (1992): 18-24.
———. "Istvan Csurka's Tract: Summary and Reactions." RFE/RL Research Report 1, no. 40 (1992): 15-22.
Reisch, Alfred A. "Hungarian-Russian Relations Enter a New Era." RFE/RL Research Report 2, no. 2 (1993): 5-10.
Schatz, Sara. "The Construction of an Imagined National Identity in Post-Communist Hungary: The Jozsef Antall Cabinet." Canadian Review of Studies in Nationalism = Revue Canadienne des etudes Sur le Nationalisme 25, no. 1 (1998): 63-68.
Tokas, Rudolf L. "From Visegrad to Krakow: Cooperation, Competition, and Coexistence in Eastern Europe." Problems of Communism 40, no. 6 (1991): 100-14.
Várhelyi, András. The Life of József Antall in Photos. Békéscsaba: Tevan, 1994.

 

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Nicolae Ceausescu (1918-1989): The last Communist leader of Romania, who was summarily executed, with his

wife, a few days after the fall of communism in his country.

 

"Ciao, Ceausescu." New Republic 202, no. 4 (1990): 7-9.
Almond, Mark. "Decline without Fall: Romania under Ceausescu." In Europe in Turmoil: The Struggle for Pluralism, edited by Gerald Frost, 279-329. NY: Praeger, 1991.
———. The Rise and Fall of Nicolae and Elena Ceausescu. London: Chapmans, 1991.
Barnard, Patrick. "Remembering Our Man Ceausescu." Nation 250, no. 7 (1990): 230-32.
Barnett, Thomas P. M. Romanian and East German Policies in the Third World: Comparing the Strategies of Ceausescu and Honecker. New York, NY: Praeger Publishers, 1992.
Behr, Edward. Kiss the Hand You Cannot Bite : The Rise and Fall of the Ceaucescus. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1991.
Burke, James F. "Romanian and Soviet Intelligence in the December Revolution." Intelligence and National Security 8, no. 4 (1993): 26-58.
Calinescu, Matei, and Vladimir Tismaneanu. "The 1989 Revolution and Romania's Future." Problems of Communism 40, no. 1 (1991): 42-59.
Câmpeanu, Pavel. Ceausescu: The Countdown. Boulder: East European Monographs, 2003.
Ceausescu, Nicolae. Nicolae Ceausescu, Builder of Modern Romania and International Statesman. 1st ed. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: New York, 1983.
Cullen, Robert. "Report from Romania: Down with the Tyrant." New Yorker 66, no. 7 (1990): 94-112.
Daniels, Anthony. "A Red's White Elephant." National Review 57, no. 10 (2005): 33-34.
Danta, Darrick. "Ceausescu's Bucharest." Geographical Review 83, no. 2 (1993): 170-82.
Deletant, Dennis. Ceausescu and the Securitate: Coercion and Dissent in Romania, 1965-1989. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1995.
———. "The Securitate and the Police State in Romania, 1964-89." Intelligence and National Security 9, no. 1 (1994): 22-49.
Ermatinger, James. "Ceausescu's Nationalism: Ancient Dacian Translated into Modern Romanian." In Labyrinth of Nationalism: Complexities of Diplomacy: Essays in Honor of Charles and Barbara Jelavich, edited by Richard C. Frucht, 180-189. Columbus, OH: Slavica Publishers, 1992.
Eyal, Jonathan. "Why Romania Could Not Avoid Bloodshed." In Spring in Winter: The 1989 Revolutions, edited by Gwyn Prins, 139-160. Manchester: Manchester University Press; NY: distributed by St. Martin's Press, 1990.
Fischer, Mary Ellen. Nicolae Ceausescu : A Study in Political Leadership. Boulder: L. Rienner Publishers, 1989.
Gallagher, Tom. "Romanian Tyranny Seen from above and Below." European History Quarterly 35, no. 4 (2005): 559-68.
Gilberg, Trond. Nationalism and Communism in Romania: The Rise and Fall of Ceausescu's Personal Dictatorship. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1990.
Hetnal, Adam A. "The Rise and Fall of the Genius of the Carpathians: The Life and Career of Nicolae Ceausescu (January 26, 1918-December 25, 1989)." Ukrainian Quarterly 46, no. 3 (1990): 182-299.
Husarska, Anna. "Ceausescu's Ghosts." New Republic 202, no. 24 (1990): 13-16.
Ionescu, Dan. "The Posthumous Ceausescu Cult and Its High Priests." Report on Eastern Europe 2, no. 22 (1991): 23-28.
Kerim, Silvia. Parfumeria : Ceausescu's Destruction of 'Little Paris'. Bucuresti: Universalia, 2000.
King, Robert R. "Coping with Ceausescu's Legacy." World & I (1990): 104-11.
Kirk, Roger, and Mircea Raceanu. "Dealing with Dictatorships: Lessons from Ceausescu's Romania." Mediterranean Quarterly 5, no. 2 (1994): 25-36.
Launay, Jacques de. Nicolae Ceausescu : A Man for Europe's Unity and Peace. London: World's Peace Movement, 1983.
Linden, Ronald. "Reaction to the Revolution, Part Ii: The Ceausescu's Overthrow." Report on Eastern Europe 1, no. 5 (1990): 36-39.
Munteanu, Mircea. "The Last Days of a Dictator." Cold War International History Project Bulletin, no. 12 (2001): 217-25.
Pacepa, Ion Mihai. Red Horizons: The True Story of Nicolae and Elena Ceausescus' Crimes, Lifestyle and Corruption. Washington, D.C.: Regnery Gateway, 1990.
Pintea, Victor. "Stalinism with an Iron Fist." Nation 250, no. 2 (1990): 46-48.
Quammen, David. "The Bear Slayer." Atlantic Monthly 292, no. 1 (2003): 45-57.
Ronnas, Per. "The Economic Legacy of Ceausescu." In Economic Change in the Balkan States: Albania, Bulgaria, Romania and Yugoslavia, edited by Orjan Sjoberg and Michael L. Wyzan, 47-68. NY: St. Martin's Press, 1991.
Shafir, Michael. "Ceausescu's Overthrow: Popular Uprising or Moscow-Guided Conspiracy?" Report on Eastern Europe 1, no. 3 (1990): 15-19.
———. "The Isolation of Romania and the Fall of Nicolae Ceausescu." Report on Eastern Europe 1, no. 1 (1990): 28-32.
———. "New Revelations of the Military's Role in Ceausescu's Ouster." Report on Eastern Europe 1, no. 19 (1990): 24-26.
Shubart, Tira. "Ceausescu's Last Ride." World Monitor 3, no. 3 (1990): 19-21.
Sweeney, John. The Life and Evil Times of Nicolae Ceausescu. London: Hutchinson, 1991.
Tismaneanu, Vladimir. "Understanding National Stalinism: Reflections on Ceausescu's Socialism." Communist and Post-Communist Studies 32, no. 2 (1999): 155-73.
Tokes, Laszlo, and David Porter. The Fall of Tyrants: The Incredible Story of One Pastor's Witness, the People of Romania, and the Overthrow of Ceausescu. Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books, 1990.
Verdery, Katherine. National Ideology under Socialism: Identity and Cultural Politics in Ceausescu's Romania. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1991.

 

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Erich Honecker (1912-1994): The last Communist leader of East Germany, who fled to the Soviet Union after the

fall of the Communist regime.

 

"Information from CC CPSU to GDR Leader Erich Honecker, 13 October 1978." Cold War International History Project Bulletin 8/9, (1997): 134-36.
"Transcript, Meeting of East German Leader Erich Honecker and Soviet Leader Leonid Brezhnev, Crimea, Ussr, 27 July 1979 (Excerpt)." Cold War International History Project Bulletin 8/9, (1997): 123-24.
Bryson, Phillip J., and Manfred Melzer. The End of the East German Economy: From Honecker to Reunification. New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 1991.
Dennis, Mike. "'Perfecting' the Imperfect: The Gdr Economy in the Honecker Era." In The German Revolution of 1989: Causes and Consequences, edited by Gert-Joachim Glaessner and Ian Wallace, 57-83. Providence, RI: Berg, 1992.
Elster, Jon. "On Doing What One Can." East European Constitutional Review 1, no. 2 (1992): 15-17.
Falcoff, Mark. "The Strange Case of Erich Honecker." Freedom Review 23, no. 4 (1992): 12-15.
Goeckel, Robert F. The Lutheran Church and the East German State: Political Conflict and Change under Ulbricht and Honecker. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1990.
Guskind, Robert. "Honecker's Been Nabbed: Now What?" National Journal 24, no. 32 (1992): 1847-47.
Kaplan, Morton A. "The New Yorker's 'Sieg Heil' to Herr Honecker." World & I 8, no. 4 (1993): 110-13.
Kennedy-Bannier, Catarina. "Erich the Dead." New Republic 211, no. 3-4 (1994): 11-11.
Lasky, Melvin J. "The Trial of Erich Honecker." National Review 45, no. 6 (1993): 23-25.
McAdams, A. James. "The Honecker Trial: The East German Past and the German Future." Review of Politics 58, no. 1 (1996): 53-80.
Schorr, Daniel. "Honecker on Trial." New Leader 75, no. 10 (1992): 4-4.
Wallace, Ian, and Gert-Joachim Glaessner. "The Failure of Gdr Cultural Policy under Honecker." In The German Revolution of 1989: Causes and Consequences, edited by Gert-Joachim Glaessner and Ian Wallace, 100-23. Providence, RI: Berg, 1992.

 

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Gustav Husak (1913-1991): An ethnic Slovak, he was the last president of Communist Czecholovakia until December 1989.

 

Kusin, Vladimir V. "The Third and Final Fall of Gustav Husak." Report on Eastern Europe 1, no. 2 (1990): 1-3.
Martin, Peter. "Gustav Husak." Report on Eastern Europe 2, no. 48 (1991): 10-10.
Research Center for, Religion, and Societies Human Rights in Closed. "Last Rites for President Husak." RCDA 30, no. 3 (1991): 61-61.
Tuma, Oldrich. "Czechoslovak November 1989." Cold War International History Project Bulletin 12 (2001): 181-92.

 

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Ion Iliescu (1930- ): A former Communist, he served as president of Romania twice (1990-1996, 2000-2004) after the fall of communism.

 

Andrejevich, Milan. "Iliescu's Visit: The Issue of Romania's Yugoslav Minorities." Report on Eastern Europe 1, no. 38 (1990): 29-31.
Bican, Florin, and Noel Malcolm. "Through the Looking Glass." National Review 43, no. 20 (1991): 43-44.
Calinescu, Matei and Vladimir Tismaneanu. "The 1989 Revolution and Romania's Future." In

The 1989 Revolution and Romania's Future, edited by Daniel N. Nelson, 11-44. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1992.
Fischer, Mary Ellen. "The New Leaders and the Opposition." In Romania after Tyranny, edited by Daniel N. Nelson, 45-65. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1992.
Ionescu, Dan. "Romania: The President, the Journalists, and the Kgb." Transition 1, no. 16 (1995): 36-39.
King, Robert R. "The Future of Romanian-Soviet Relations in the Post-Ceausescu Era." In

East-Central Europe and the USSR, edited by Richard F. Staar, 229-47. NY: St. Martin's Press, 1991.
Shafir, Michael. "Sharp Drop in Leadership's Popularity." Report on Eastern Europe 2, no. 15 (1991): 23-24.
Socor, Vladimir. "The New President." Report on Eastern Europe 1, no. 23 (1990): 38-41.
Stefoi, Elena. "Ion Iliescu: Profile and Interview." East European Constitutional Review 2/4-3/1 (1993): 51-58.
Sturdza, Mihai. "The President and the Miners: The End of a Privileged Relationship?" Report on Eastern Europe 1, no. 39 (1990): 33-37.
Tismaneanu, Vladimir. "Democracy, Romanian Style." Dissent 42, no. 3 (1995): 318-20.
Tismaneanu, Vladimir, and Gail Kligman. "Romania's First Postcommunist Decade: From Iliescu to Iliescu." East European Constitutional Review 10, no. 1 (2001): 78-87.
Verdery, Katherine, and Gail Kligman. "Romania after Ceausescu: Post-Communist Communism?" In Eastern Europe in Revolution, edited by Ivo Banac, 117-47. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1992.

 

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Wojciech Jarozelski (1923- ): The last leader of Communist Poland.

 

Anoshkin, V. I., and Mark Kramer. "The Anoshkin Notebook on the Polish Crisis, December 1981." Cold War International History Project Bulletin 11, (1998): 14-31.

Garlicki, Leszek. "The Development of the Presidency in Poland: Wrong Institutions or Wrong Persons?" In Poland in a World in Change: Constitutions, Presidents, and Politics, edited by Kenneth W. Thompson, 65-111. Lanham, MD
United States: University Press of America, 1992.

Jaruzelski, Wojciech. "Commentary." Cold War International History Project Bulletin 11, (1998): 32-39.

Kramer, Mark. "Jaruzelski, the Soviet Union, and the Imposition of Martial Law in Poland: New Light on the Mystery of December 1981." Cold War International History Project Bulletin 11, (1998): 5-14.

Machcewicz, Pawel. "Poland 1986-1989: From 'Cooptation' to 'Negotiated Revolution'." Cold War International History Project Bulletin 12 (2001): 93-129.

Orizio, Riccardo, and Avril Bardoni. Talk of the Devil: Encounters with Seven Dictators. New York, NY
United States: Walker & Company, 2003.
Osiatynski, Wiktor, and Krzysztof Moscicki. "Wojciech Jaruzelski: Note and Interview." East European Constitutional Review 2/4-3/1 (1993): 47-50.

Pelinka, Anton. Politics of the Lesser Evil: Leadership, Democracy, & Jaruzelski's Poland. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1999.
Sulkowski, Marcin. "The Dispute About the General." Uncaptive Minds 3, no. 2 (1990): 7-9.

Walicki, Andrzej. "Notes on Jaruzelski's Poland." In Crisis and Reform in Eastern Europe, edited by Ferenc Feher and Andrew Arato, 335-91. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1991.

 

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Janos Kadar (1912-1989): The last, long-time leader of Communist Hungary.

 

Adair, Bianca L. "Democratization and Regime Transformation in Hungary." Problems of Post-Communism 49, no. 2 (2002): 52-61.

Barany, Zoltan. "Out with a Whimper: The Final Days of Hungarian Socialism." Communist and Post-Communist Studies 32, no. 2 (1999): 113-25.

Felkay, Andrew. Hungary and the Ussr, 1956-1988: Kadar's Political Leadership. New York, NY: Greenwood Press, 1989.
Gero, Andras, and Ivan Peto. Unfinished Socialism: Pictures from the Kadar-Era. New York, NY: Central European University Press, 1999.
Gough, Roger. A Good Comrade : János Kádár, Communism and Hungary. London: I.B. Tauris, 2006.

Tischler, Janos. "The Hungarian Party Leadership and the Polish Crisis of 1980-1981." Cold War International History Project Bulletin 11, (1998): 77-79.

 

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Vaclav Klaus (1941- ): An economist by trade, he was one of the central political figures after the fall of communism in Czechoslovakia, but found himself at loggerheads with Vaclav Havel.

 

Klaus, Vaclav. "The Problems of a Newly Born Democracy and Market Economy Ten Years after the Collapse of Communism." Kosmas: Czechoslovak and Central European Journal 14, no. 2 (2001): 109-12.

Kuehnl, Karel, and Jan Obrman. "Interview with Finance Minister Vaclav Klaus." Report on Eastern Europe 1, no. 38 (1990): 10-14.

Orenstein, Mitchell. "Vaclav Klaus: Revolutionary and Parliamentarian." East European Constitutional Review 7, no. 1 (1998): 46-55.

———. "Vaclav Klaus: Revolutionary and Parliamentarian." East European Constitutional Review 7, no. 1 (1998): 46-55.

Pehe, Jiri. "Maverick Czech Reformers Get Bogged Down." Transition 3, no. 2 (1997): 8-10.

Pontuso, James F. "Transformation Politics: The Debate between Vaclav Havel and Vaclav Klaus on the Free Market and Civil Society." Studies in East European Thought 54, no. 3 (2002): 153-77.

Saxonberg, Steven. "Vaclav Klaus: The Rise and Fall and Re-Emergence of a Charismatic Leader." East European Politics and Societies 13, no. 2 (1999): 391-418.

 

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Tadeusz Mazowiecki (1923- ): A former journalist, he became the first non-communist prime minister of Poland.


Hunter, Richard J., Jr., and Leo V. Ryan. "A Retrospective Analysis and Future Perspective: Why Was Poland's Transition So Difficult?" Polish Review 51, no. 2 (2006): 147-71.

Jasiewicz, Krzysztof. "Polish Elections, 1989-1991: Beyond the 'Pospolite Ruszenie'." In Bound to Change: Consolidating Democracy in East Central Europe, edited by Peter M. E. Volten, 191-211. New York, NY: Institute for East-West Studies; Boulder, CO; distributed by Westview Press, 1992.

Sabbat-Swidlicka, Anna. "Mazowiecki's Year in Review." Report on Eastern Europe 2, no. 1 (1991): 25-31.

———. "Polish Peasant Party Withdraws Support for Mazowiecki's Government." Report on Eastern Europe 1, no. 41 (1990): 22-24.

Vinton, Louisa. "Mazowiecki Government Steps Down." Report on Eastern Europe 2, no. 2 (1991): 18-21.

———. "Mazowiecki's Political Agenda for 1990." Report on Eastern Europe 1, no. 10 (1990): 38-43.

 

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Adam Michnik (1946- ): A historian by training, he was one of the most prominent opposition leaders of Communist Poland. 

 

Besanion, Alain. "In Response to Adam Michnik." Uncaptive Minds 3, no. 4 (1990): 12-13.

Cushman, Thomas. "Anti-Totalitarianism as a Vocation." Dissent 51, no. 2 (2004): 28-33.

Habermas, Jergen, Adam Krzeminski, and Adam Michnik. "'More Humility, Fewer Illusions': A Talk." New York Review of Books 41, no. 6 (1994): 24-29.

Isaac, Jeffrey C. "Adam Michnik: Politics and the Church." Salmagundi 103 (1994): 198-212.

———. "Rethinking the Legacy of Central European Dissidence." Common Knowledge 10, no. 1 (2004): 119-29.

Judt, Tony. "The Dilemmas of Dissidence: The Politics of Opposition in East-Central Europe." In Crisis and Reform in Eastern Europe, edited by Andrew  Arato and Ferenc  Feher, 253-301. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 1991.

Masterov, Valery, Adam Michnik, and Gennady Zhavoronkov. "Adam Michnik on Democracy in the Former Soviet Union." Surviving Together 10, no. 3 (1992): 49-50.

Michael, John. "The Intellectual and Uncivil Society: Michnik, Poland and Community." Telos: a Quarterly Journal of Radical Social Theory 88 (1991): 141-54.

Michnik, Adam. "Adam Michnik Interviews Zhelyu Zhelev." Australian Slavonic and East European Studies 6, no. 2 (1992): 107-19.

———. "On Detente: An Interview with Adam Michnik." In The New Detente: Rethinking East-West Relations, edited by Richard Falk, Gerard   Holden and Mary Kaldor, 117-29. New York: Verso, 1989.

———. "Postcommunist Poland: Religious Liberty for All?" East-West Church & Ministry Report 3, no. 3 (1995): 7-8.

Modzelewski, Karol. "Who and What Makes a Leader." Uncaptive Minds 3, no. 5 (1990): 32-33.

Paradowska, Janina. "The Three Cards Game: An Interview with Adam Michnik." Telos: a Quarterly Journal of Radical Social Theory 89 (1991): 95-101.

Sikorski, Radek. "Adam's Curse." American Spectator 27, no. 4 (1994): 64-66.

Solchanyk, Roman. "Ukraine and Poland: An Interview with Adam Michnik." Report on the USSR 2, no. 1 (1990): 17-22.

Taras, Raymond. "The Crisis of Ideology and the Ideology of Crisis: Marxist Critiques of the Polish Socialist System 1956-90." In Ideology and System Change in the Ussr and East Europe: Selected Papers from the Fourth World Congress for Soviet and East European Studies, edited by Michael E. Urban, 162-82. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992.

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 Petur Mladenov (1936-2000): A former Communist and diplomat, he became the first President of post-Communist Bulgaria.


Gavrilov, Vera. "National Assembly Elects Mladenov President and Sets Stage for Elections." Report on Eastern Europe 1, no. 17 (1990): 9-10.

Hetnal, Adam A. "Communist Dominated and Post-Communist Bulgaria." Ukrainian Quarterly 48, no. 4 (1992): 417-36.

Nikolaev, Rada. "President Mladenov Resigns." Report on Eastern Europe 1, no. 31 (1990): 1-4.

Wyzan, Michael L. "The Bulgarian Economy in the Immediate Post-Zhivkov Era." In Economic Change in the Balkan States: Albania, Bulgaria, Romania and Yugoslavia, edited by Arjan  Sjuberg and Michael L.  Wyzan, 83-100. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1991.

 

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Zhelyu Zhelev (1935- ): One of the few opposition leaders of Communist Bulgaria, he was elected the first President of post-Communist Bulgaria (1990-1996)

 

Baer, Josette. "Bulgaria's Divided Minds?: On Zhelyu Zhelev's 'Conformist Dissent'." Balkanistica 17, (2004): 1-21.

Chiodini, Steven. "Many Challenges Remain for Zhelyu's Bulgaria." Harvard International Review 13, no. 3 (1991): 43-43.

Engelbrekt, Kjell. "The Fall of Bulgaria's First Noncommunist Government." RFE/RL Research Report 1, no. 45 (1992): 1-6.

Hetnal, Adam A. "Communist Dominated and Post-Communist Bulgaria." Ukrainian Quarterly 48, no. 4 (1992): 417-36.

Michnik, Adam, and Zhelyu Zhelev. "No Matter How Much We Want to, We Cannot Escape the Past." RCDA 31, no. 3 (1992): 47-49.

Nikolaev, Rada. "The Bulgarian Presidential Elections." RFE/RL Research Report 1, no. 6 (1992): 11-16.

Perry, Duncan M. "Dissident Becomes New President." Report on Eastern Europe 1, no. 33 (1990): 3-6.

Perry, Duncan M., and Louisa Vinton. "President Talks to Polish Editor." Report on Eastern Europe 1, no. 37 (1990): 3-5.

Zhelev, Zhelyu. "Is Communism Returning?" Journal of Democracy 7, no. 3 (1996): 4-6.

 

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Todor Zhivkov (1911-1998): One of the longest-serving leaders of the Communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe, he fell from power in 1989. 


"Todor Zhivkov and the Cold War: Revelations from His Personal Papers." Cold War International History Project Bulletin 12/13 (2003): 421-39.

Baev, Jordan. "1989: Bulgarian Transition to Pluralist Democracy." Cold War International History Project Bulletin 12 (2001): 165-80.

Engelbrekt, Kjell. "Bulgaria's Communist Legacy: Settling Old Scores." RFE/RL Research Report 1, no. 28 (1992): 6-10.

Engelbrekt, Kjell, and Duncan M. Perry. "The Conviction of Bulgaria's Former Leader." RFE/RL Research Report 1, no. 42 (1992): 6-9.

Perry, Duncan M. "Todor Zhivkov: Villain or Dupe?" Report on Eastern Europe 1, no. 39 (1990): 4-7.

 

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Last Updated Novemeber 17, 2010

 

last updated: 11/17/2010