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Libraries & Subjects
  
last updated: 6/22/2010

Bibliography: Post-Communist Elections

General (books | journal articles)

Online resources (general | individual countries)

 

Albania | Armenia | Azerbaijan | Belarus | Bosnia | Bulgaria | Croatia | Czech Republic | Estonia | Georgia | Hungary | Latvia | Lithuania | MoldovaMacedoniaMontenegroPoland | Romania | Russia | Serbia | Slovak Republic | Slovenia | Ukraine

 

General

 

Books

Berlin Conference on Comparative Political Research in, Central, Europe Eastern, Hans-Dieter Klingemann, and Ekkehard Mochmann. Elections in Central and Eastern Europe: The First Wave. Berlin: Edition Sigma, 2000. 353 p.

Garber, Larry, and Eric Bjornlund. The New Democratic Frontier: A Country by Country Report on Elections in Central and Eastern Europe. Washington, DC: National Democratic Institute for International Affairs, 1992. 247 p.

Rose, Richard, and Neil Munro. Elections and Parties in New European Democracies. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2003. 309 p.

Security, U. S. Congress. Commission on Cooperation in Europe. Elections in Central and Eastern Europe: A Compendium of Reports on the Elections Held from March through June 1990. Washington, DC: U.S. overnment Printing Office, 1990. 157 p.

Tworzecki, Hubert. Learning to Choose: Electoral Politics in East-Central Europe. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2003. 290 p.

Western, Jon W. East European Elections: Players, Process and Prospects. Washington, DC: Library of Congress: Congressional Research Service, 1990. 40 p.

 

 Journal Articles

Bielasiak, Jack. "The Institutionalization of the Electoral and Party Systems in Postcommunist States." Comparative Politics 34, no. 2 (2002): 189-210.

Bunce, Valerie J., and Sharon L. Wolchik. "Favorable Conditions and Electoral Revolutions." Journal of Democracy 17, no. 4 (2006): 5-18.

———. "International Diffusion and Postcommunist Electoral Revolutions." Communist and Post-Communist Studies 39, no. 3 (2006): 283-304.

Calingaert, Daniel. "Election Rigging and How to Fight It." Journal of Democracy 17, no. 3 (2006): 138-51.

Dawisha, Karen, and Stephen Deets. "Political Learning in Post-Communist Elections." East European Politics and Societies 20, no. 4 (2006): 691-728.

Fenger, Menno. "The Diffusion of Revolutions: Comparing Recent Regime Turnovers in Five Post-Communist Countries." Demokratizatsiya: The Journal of Post-Soviet Democratization 15, no. 1 (2007): 5-28.

Gibson, John, and Anna Cielecka. "Economic Influences on the Political Support for Market Reform in Post-Communist Transtions: Some Evidence from the 1993 Polish Parliamentary Elections." Europe-Asia Studies 47, no. 5 (1995): 765-85.

Harper, Marcus A. G. "Economic Voting in Postcommunist Eastern Europe." Comparative Political Studies 33, no. 9 (2000): 1191-227.

Rose-Ackerman, Susan. "From Elections to Democracy in Central Europe: Public Participation and the Role of Civil Society." East European Politics and Societies 21, no. 1 (2007): 31-47.

 

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Individual Countries

 

Albania


Books

United States Congress, Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe. Albania's 2005 Parliamentary Elections: How Free and Fair Will They Be? : March 21, 2005, Briefing of the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe. Washington: Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe: [Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O., distributor], 2006. 28 p.

 

Journal Articles

Schmidt, Fabian. "Albania: Election Fraud Sparks Protests." Transition 2, no. 13 (1996): 38.


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Armenia

Books

Edgeworth, Linda, Scott Lansell, and Systems International Foundation for Election. Armenia: 1995 on-Site Technical Assistance; Technical Assessment and Assistance to Armenia: July 5, 1995 National Assembly Elections and Constitutional Referendum, IFES Project Reports. Europe. Washington, DC: International Foundation for Election Systems, 1996. 200 p.

United States Congress, Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe. Report on Armenia's Parliamentary Election and Constitutional Referendum: July 5, 1995, Yerevan, Armenia. Washington, DC: The Commission, 1995. 23 p.

———. Report on Armenia's Presidential Election March 16 and 30, 1998. Washington, DC: The Commission, 1998. 32 p.

———. Report on Armenia's Presidential Election of September 22, 1996, Yerevan. Washington: The Commission, 1996. 35 p.

 

Journal Articles

Defeis, Elizabeth F. "Elections and Democracy: Armenia, a Case Study." Loyola of Los Angeles International and Comparative Law Journal 20, no. 3 (1998): 455-74.

 

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Azerbaijan


Books

United States Congress, Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe. The Presidential Election in Azerbaijan, June 7, 1992: Baku and Mardakyan. Washington, DC: The Commission, 1992. 19 p.

———. Report on Azerbaijan's Presidential Election: Baku, Sumgait, Ganja. Washington, DC: CSCE, 1998. 30 p.

 

Journal Articles

Alieva, Leila. "Azerbaijan's Frustrating Elections." Journal of Democracy 17, no. 2 (2006): 147-60.

Valiyev, Anar. "Parliamentary Elections in Azerbaijan: A Failed Revolution." Problems of Post-Communism 53, no. 3 (2006): 17-35.

 

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Belarus


Books

Bulhakau, Valer. The Political System of Belarus and the 2001 Presidential Election: Analytical Articles. Minsk: Analytical Group; Warsaw: East European Democratic Centre IDEE, 2001. 344 p.

United States Congress, Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe. Freedom Denied: Belarus on the Eve of the Election: Hearing before the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe, One Hundred Ninth Congress, Second Session, March 9, 2006. Washington, DC: U.S. G.P.O., 2007. 65 p.

 

Journal Articles

Ioffe, Grigory. "Unfinished Nation-Building in Belarus and the 2006 Presidential Election." Eurasian Geography and Economics 48, no. 1 (2007): 37-58.

 
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Bosnia
Books

Arnautovic, Suad. Ten Years of Democratic Chaos: Electoral Processes in Bosnia and Herzegovina from 1996 to 2006: Essays, Analyses and Comments. Sarajevo: Promocult, 2007. 268 p.

Coles, Kimberley. Democratic Designs: International Intervention and Electoral Practices in Postwar Bosnia-Herzegovina. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2007. 297 p.

Schmeets, Hans, and Jeanet Exel. The 1996 Bosnia-Herzegovina Elections: An Analysis of the Observations. Dordrecht; Boston: Kluwer Academic, 1997. 154 p.

Schmeets, Hans, Security Organization for, Institutions Cooperation in Europe. Office for Democratic, Rights Human, and Commission European. The 1997 Municipal Elections in Bosnia and Herzegovina: An Analysis of the Observations. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998. 12 p.

United States Congress, House. Committee on International Relations. Prospects for Free and Fair Elections in Bosnia: Hearing before the Committee on International Relations, House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, Second Session, June 11, 1996. Washington, DC: U.S. G.P.O., 1996. 139 p.

 

Journal Articles

Coles, Kimberley A. "Election Day: The Construction of Democracy through Technique." Cultural Anthropology 19, no. 4 (2004): 551-80.

Shoup, Paul. "The Elections in Bosnia and Herzegovina: The End of an Illusion." Problems of Post-Communism 44, no. 1 (1997): 3-15.

Udovicic, Radenko. "Elections in Bosnia: Standing in Place." Uncaptive Minds 9, no. 1 (1996): 55-64.

 

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Bulgaria


Books

National Democratic Institute for International Affairs, International Republican Institute. The October 13, 1991 Legislative and Municipal Elections in Bulgaria. Washington, DC: National Democratic Institute for International Affairs; International Republican Institute, 1992. 136 p.

 

Journal Articles

Barany, Zoltan D. "Bulgaria's Royal Elections." Journal of Democracy 13, no. 2 (2002): 141-55.

Gerganov, Encho N., Margarita L. Dilova, Kristina G. Petkova, and Elena P. Paspalanova. "Voting in the First Posttotalitarian Elections in Bulgaria." Political Psychology 16, no. 4 (1995): 737-48.

Karasimeonov, Georgi. "The Political Parties in Bulgaria and the Political Situation at the Time of the 2001 Presidential Election." SEER Southeast Europe Review for Labour and Social Affairs 4/2001 (2001): 109-22.

Troxel, Luan. "Socialist Persistence in the Bulgarian Elections of 1990 and 1991." East European Quarterly 26, no. 4 (1992): 407-30.

 

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Croatia


Books

Salay, Cathy, Katarina Duich, and Systems International Foundation for Election. Republic of Croatia: 1995 Election Observation Report; Croatia: Election Observation Report of the Elections to the House of Representatives, IFES Project Reports. Europe. Washington, DC: International Foundation for Election Systems, 1996. 76 p.

 

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Czech Republic


Journal Articles

Havlik, Vlastimil, and Hana Vykoupilova. "Two Dimensions of the Europeanization of Election Programs: The Case of the Czech Republic." Communist and Post-Communist Studies 41, no. 2 (2008): 163-87.

Tucker, Joshua A. "Economic Conditions and the Vote for Incumbent Parties in Russia, Poland, Hungary, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic from 1990 to 1996." Post-Soviet Affairs 17, no. 4 (2001): 309-31.

Turnovec, Frantisek. "Votes, Seats and Power: 1996 Parliamentary Election in the Czech Republic." Communist and Post-Communist Studies 30, no. 3 (1997): 289-305.

Tworzecki, Hubert. "The Role of Elections and Voting Behavior in Democratic Consolidation in Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic." Soviet and Post-Soviet Review 26, no. 1 (1999): 43-92.

Williams, Kieran. "The Growing Litigiousness of Czech Elections." Europe-Asia Studies 59, no. 6 (2007): 937-59.

 

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Estonia


Journal Articles

Ishiyama, John T. "Electoral Systems Experimentation in the New Eastern Europe: The Single Transferable Vote and the Additional Member System in Estonia and Hungary." East European Quarterly 29, no. 4 (1995): 487-507.

———. "Founding Elections and the Development of Transitional Parties: The Cases of Estonia and Latvia, 1990-1992." Communist and Post-Communist Studies 26, no. 3 (1993): 277-99.

 

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Georgia


Books

United States Congress, Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe. Report on Georgia's Parliamentary Elections October 11, 1992: Tbilisi, Bolnisi, Rachisubani, Emirasan, Shaumyan. Washington, DC: Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe, 1992. 22 p.

———. Report on the Presidential Elections in Georgia: A Report. Washington (234 Ford House Office Bldg., Washington 20515-6460): The Commission, 2000. 13 p.

 

Journal Articles

Fairbanks, Charles H. "Georgia's Rose Revolution." Journal of Democracy 15, no. 2 (2004): 110-24.

Slider, Darrell. "Recent Elections in Georgia: At Long Last, Stability?" Demokratizatsiya: The Journal of Post-Soviet Democratization 8, no. 4 (2000): 517-32.

 

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Hungary


Journal Articles

Agh, Attila. "Party Formation Process and the 1998 Elections in Hungary: Defeat as Promoter of Change for the Hsp." East European Politics and Societies 14, no. 2 (2000): 288-315.

Barany, Zoltan D., and Louisa Vinton. "Breakthrough to Democracy: Elections in Poland and Hungary." Studies in Comparative Communism 23, no. 2 (1990): 191-212.

Hibbing, John R., and Samuel C. Patterson. "A Democratic Legislature in the Making: The Historic Hungarian Elections of 1990." Comparative Political Studies 24, no. 4 (1992): 430-54.

Ishiyama, John T. "Electoral Systems Experimentation in the New Eastern Europe: The Single Transferable Vote and the Additional Member System in Estonia and Hungary." East European Quarterly 29, no. 4 (1995): 487-507.

Pentek, Rita. "Istvan Horthy's Election as Vice-President in 1942." Hungarian Studies Review 23, no. 1 (1996): 17-28.

Racz, Barnabas. "The Left in Hungary and the 2002 Parliamentary Elections." Europe-Asia Studies 55, no. 5 (2003): 747-69.

———. "Political Pluralisation in Hungary: The 1990 Elections." Soviet Studies 43, no. 1 (1991): 107-36.

———. "Regional Voting Trends in Hungarian National Elections 1985-2002." East European Quarterly 37, no. 4 (2003): 439-59.

Racz, Barnabas, and Istvan Kukorelli. "The 'Second-Generation' Post-Communist Elections in Hungary in 1994." Europe-Asia Studies 47, no. 2 (1995): 251-79.

Rajacic, Agnes. "Populist Construction of the Past and Future: Emotional Campaigning in Hungary between 2002 and 2006." East European Politics and Societies 21, no. 4 (2007): 639-60.

Tucker, Joshua A. "Economic Conditions and the Vote for Incumbent Parties in Russia, Poland, Hungary, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic from 1990 to 1996." Post-Soviet Affairs 17, no. 4 (2001): 309-31.

Tworzecki, Hubert. "The Role of Elections and Voting Behavior in Democratic Consolidation in Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic." Soviet and Post-Soviet Review 26, no. 1 (1999): 43-92.

 

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Latvia


Journal Articles

Ishiyama, John T. "Founding Elections and the Development of Transitional Parties: The Cases of Estonia and Latvia, 1990-1992." Communist and Post-Communist Studies 26, no. 3 (1993): 277-99.

Stukuls, Diana. "Imagining the Nation: Campaign Posters of the First Postcommunist Elections in Latvia." East European Politics and Societies 11, no. 1 (1997): 131-54.

Troxel, Luan. "Socialist Persistence in the Bulgarian Elections of 1990 and 1991." East European Quarterly 26, no. 4 (1992): 407-30.

 

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Lithuania


Journal Articles

Clark, Terry D. "The 1996 Elections to the Lithuanian Seimas and Their Aftermath." Journal of Baltic Studies 29, no. 2 (1998): 135-48.

Clark, Terry D., and Nerijus PrekeviFius. "Explaining the 2000 Lithuanian Parliamentary Elections: An Application of Contextual and New Institutional Approaches." Slavic Review 62, no. 3 (2003): 548-69.

 

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Moldova


Journal Articles

Büscher, Klemens. "Moldova after the Parliamentary Elections: A Second Chance for Reform." SEER- Southeast Europe Review for Labour and Social Affairs, no. 3 (1998): 69-79.

Hill, R.J. "Profile- Moldova Votes Backwards: The 2001 Parliamentary Election." Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics 17, no. 4 (2001): 130-39.

 

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Macedonia


Books

Edgeworth, Linda, Eran Fraenkel, Scott Lansell, and International Foundation for Electoral Systems. Pre-Election Technical Assessment of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM). Washington, DC: IFES, 1994. 1 v.

 

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Montenegro


Books

United States Congress, Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe. Presidential Elections in Montenegro: A Report. Washington, DC (234 Ford House Office Building, Washington 20515): The Commission, 1998. 9 p.

 

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Poland

Journal Articles

Barany, Zoltan D., and Louisa Vinton. "Breakthrough to Democracy: Elections in Poland and Hungary." Studies in Comparative Communism 23, no. 2 (1990): 191-212.

Blazyca, George, and Ryszard Rapacki. "Continuity and Change in Polish Economic Policy: The Impact of the 1993 Election." Europe-Asia Studies 48, no. 1 (1996): 85-100.

Burdziej, Stanislaw. "Voices of the Disinherited? The Religious Media after the 2005 Presidential and Parliamentary Elections in Poland." East European Quarterly 42, no. 2 (2008): 207-21.

Chan, Kenneth Ka-Lok. "Poland at the Crossroads: The 1993 General Election." Europe-Asia Studies 47, no. 1 (1995): 123-45.

Gebert, Konstanty. "Anti-Semitism in the 1990 Polish Presidential Election." Social Research 58, no. 4 (1991): 723-56.

Gibson, John, and Anna Cielecka. "Economic Influences on the Political Support for Market Reform in Post-Communist Transtions: Some Evidence from the 1993 Polish Parliamentary Elections." Europe-Asia Studies 47, no. 5 (1995): 765-85.

Goldman, Minton F. "Polish-Russian Relations and the 2004 Ukrainian Presidential Elections." East European Quarterly 40, no. 4 (2006): 409-28.

Jasiewicz, Krzysztof. "Polish Politics after the 1997 Parliamentary Election: Polarization or Pluralism?" Soviet and Post-Soviet Review 26, no. 1 (1999): 93-114.

Karatnycky, Adrian. "Walesa Runs for President." New Leader 73, no. 13 (1990): 2-13.

Lubecki, Jacek, and Lech Szczegola. "'Polish Exceptionalism': What Explains the Low Turnout in Polish Post-Communist Elections?" Polish Review 52, no. 1 (2007): 3-35.

McManus-Czubinska, Clare, William L. Miller, Radoslaw Markowski, and Jacek Wasilewski. "When Does Turnout Matter? The Case of Poland." Europe-Asia Studies 56, no. 3 (2004): 401-20.

Millard, Frances. "Elections in Poland 2001: Electoral Manipulation and Party Upheaval." Communist and Post-Communist Studies 36, no. 1 (2003): 69-86.

———. "Poland's Politics and the Travails of Transition after 2001: The 2005 Elections." Europe-Asia Studies 58, no. 7 (2006): 1007-31.

———. "The Polish Parliamentary Election of September 1993." Communist and Post-Communist Studies 27, no. 3 (1994): 295-313.

———. "The Polish Parliamentary Elections of October 1991." Soviet Studies 44, no. 5 (1992): 837-55.

Pienkos, Donald. "A Fresh Start? Poland's 2005 Elections." Polish Review 51, no. 2 (2006): 207-21.

Pienkos, Donald E. "The 1995 Polish Presidential Election: A Step toward Normalcy." Polish Review 42, no. 4 (1997): 395-430.

Tucker, Joshua A. "Economic Conditions and the Vote for Incumbent Parties in Russia, Poland, Hungary, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic from 1990 to 1996." Post-Soviet Affairs 17, no. 4 (2001): 309-31.

Tworzecki, Hubert. "The Role of Elections and Voting Behavior in Democratic Consolidation in Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic." Soviet and Post-Soviet Review 26, no. 1 (1999): 43-92.

Vinton, Louisa. "Poland's Political Spectrum on the Eve of the Elections." RFE/RL Research Report 2, no. 36 (1993): 1-16.

Wade, Larry L., Alexander J. Groth, and Peter Lavelle. "Estimating Participation and Party Voting in Poland: The 1991 Parliamentary Elections." East European Politics and Societies 8, no. 1 (1994): 94-121.

Wade, Larry L., Peter Lavelle, and Alexander J. Groth. "Searching for Voting Patterns in Post-Communist Poland's Sejm Elections." Communist and Post-Communist Studies 28, no. 4 (1995): 411-25.

 

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Romania


Books

International Delegation to the Romanian National, Elections. The May 1990 Elections in Romania. Washington, DC: National Republican Institute for International Affairs; National Democratic Institute for International Affairs, 1991. 133 p.

 

Journal Articles

Carey, Henry F. "Irregularities or Rigging: Romania's 1992 Parliamentary Elections." East European Quarterly 29, no. 1 (1995): 43-66.

Roper, Steven D. "Is There an Economic Basis for Post-Communist Voting? Evidence from Romanian Elections, 1992-2000." East European Quarterly 37, no. 1 (2003): 85-100.

Stan, Lavinia. "The Opposition Takes Charge: The Romanian General Elections of 2004." Problems of Post-Communism 52, no. 3 (2005): 3-15.

 

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Russia


Books

Baumgartner, Jody C. Modern Presidential Electioneering: An Organizational and Comparative Approach. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2000. 230 p.

Belin, Laura, and Robert W. Orttung. The Russian Parliamentary Elections of 1995: The Battle for the Duma. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 1997. 203 p.

Colton, Timothy J., and Jerry F. Hough. Growing Pains: Russian Democracy and the Election of 1993. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1998. 744 p.

Colton, Timothy J., and Michael McFaul. Popular Choice and Managed Democracy: The Russian Elections of 1999 and 2000. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2003. 317 p.

Hough, Jerry F., Evelyn Davidheiser, and Susan Goodrich Lehmann. The 1996 Russian Presidential Election, Brookings Occasional Papers. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1996. 124 p.

International Republican Institute, Parliament Russia, and Duma Russian Federation. Russia: State Duma Election Observation Report: December 17, 1995. Washington, DC: International Republican Institute, 1996. 121 p.

Konitzer, Andrew. Voting for Russia's Governors: Regional Elections and Accountability under Yeltsin and

Putin. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press; Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005. 258 p.

Lentini, Peter. Elections and Political Order in Russia: The Implications of the 1993 Elections to the Federal Assembly. Budapest: Central European University Press, 1995. 292 p.

Marsh, Christopher. Russia at the Polls: Voters, Elections, and Democratization. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2002. 160 p.

McFaul, Michael. Russia's 1996 Presidential Election: The End of Polarized Politics. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, Stanford University, 1997. 169 p.

McFaul, Michael, Nikolai Vladimirovich Petrov, Andrei Ryabov, and Elizabeth Reisch. Primer on Russia's 1999 Duma Elections. Moscow: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Moscow Center, 1999. 153 p.

Moser, Robert G. Unexpected Outcomes: Electoral Systems, Political Parties, and Representation in Russia. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2001. 183 p.

National Democratic Institute for International Affairs. NDI Pre-Election Report: The December 1993 Elections in the Russian Federation. Washington, DC: National Democratic Institute for International Affairs, 1993. 59 p.

Phillips, Hugh D. Leaving the Past Behind: The Russian Presidential Elections of 1996. Washington, DC: Kennan Institute, 1999. 38 p.

Rose, Richard, and Neil Munro. Elections without Order: Russia's Challenge to Vladimir Putin. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. 262 p.

United States Congress, Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe. Report on the Russian Presidential Elections: A Report. Washington, DC: The Commission, 2000. 8 p.

———. Russia's Election: What Does It Mean?: Hearing before the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe, One Hundred Fourth Congress, Second Session, July 10, 1996. Washington, DC: U.S. G.P.O., 1996. 84 p.

United States Congress, Senate. Committee on Foreign Relations. Russia on the Eve of the Presidential Election: A Staff Report to the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, S. Prt. Washington, DC: U.S. G.P.O., 1996. 19 p.

United States Congress, Senate. Committee on Foreign Relations. Subcommittee on European Affairs. The Russian Presidential Elections: Hearing before the Subcommittee on European Affairs of the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session, April 12, 2000. Washington, DC: U.S. G.P.O., 2000. 53 p.

Wyman, Matthew, Stephen White, and Sarah Oates. Elections and Voters in Post-Communist Russia, Studies of Communism in Transition. Cheltenham; Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar, 1998. 283 p.

 

Journal Articles

Alexseev, Mikhail A. "Russia's 'Cold Peace' Consensus: Transcending the Presidential Election." Fletcher Forum of World Affairs 21, no. 1 (1997): 33-50.

Aslund, Anders. "The December 2003 and March 2004 Elections in Russia: A Framing Comment." Eurasian Geography and Economics 45, no. 4 (2004): 280-84.

Barnes, Catherine. "Federal Elections in Russia: The Necessity of Systemic Reforms." Demokratizatsiya: The Journal of Post-Soviet Democratization 4, no. 3 (1996): 389-407.

Belin, Laura. "Russia's 1996 Gubernatorial Elections and the Implications for Yeltsin." Demokratizatsiya: The Journal of Post-Soviet Democratization 5, no. 2 (1997): 165-82.

Borisov, S. V., A. V. Dakhin, A. S. Makarychev, and Inc M.E. Sharpe. "No Winner: The Mayoral Election in Nizhnii Novgorod." Russian Politics and Law 42, no. 1 (2004): 29-47.

Brooker, David C. "Kravchuk and Yeltsin at Reelection." Demokratizatsiya: The Journal of Post-Soviet Democratization 16, no. 3 (2008): 294-304.

Brudny, Yitzhak M. "In Pursuit of the Russian Presidency: Why and How Yeltsin Won the 1996 Presidential Election." Communist and Post-Communist Studies 30, no. 3 (1997): 255-75.

Clem, Ralph S., and Peter R. Craumer. "A Rayon-Level Analysis of the Russian Election and Constitutional Plebiscite of December 1993." Post-Soviet Geography 36, no. 8 (1995): 459-75.

———. "Redrawing the Political Map of Russia: The Duma Election of December 2003." Eurasian Geography and Economics 45, no. 4 (2004): 241-61.

———. "Regional Patterns of Political Preference in Russia: The December 1999 Duma Elections." Post-Soviet Geography and Economics 41, no. 1 (2000): 1-29.

———. "Roadmap to Victory: Boris Yel'tsin and the Russian Presidential Elections of 1996." Post-Soviet Geography and Economics 37, no. 6 (1996): 335-54.

———. "Spatial Patterns of Political Choice in the Post-Yel'tsin Era: The Electoral Geography of Russia's 2000 Presidential Election." Post-Soviet Geography and Economics 41, no. 7 (2000): 465-82.

Colton, Timothy J., and Michael McFaul. "Reinventing Russia's Party of Power: 'Unity' and the 1999 Duma Election." Post-Soviet Affairs 16, no. 3 (2000): 201-24.

DePoy, Erik. "Boris Yeltsin and the 1996 Presidential Election." Presidential Studies Quarterly 26, no. 4 (1996): 1140-64.

Goldman, Minton F. "Polish-Russian Relations and the 2004 Ukrainian Presidential Elections." East European Quarterly 40, no. 4 (2006): 409-28.

Golosov, Grigorii. "Disproportionality by Proportional Design: Seats and Votes in Russia's Regional Legislative Elections, December 2003-March 2005." Europe-Asia Studies 58, no. 1 (2006): 25-55.

Golosov, Grigorii V. "Party Support or Personal Resources? Factors of Success in the Plurality Portion of the 1999 National Legislative Elections in Russia." Communist and Post-Communist Studies 35, no. 1 (2002): 23-38.

Grigoriev, Sergei, and Matthew Lantz. "Lessons of the 1995 State Duma Elections." Demokratizatsiya: The Journal of Post-Soviet Democratization 4, no. 2 (1996): 159-71.

Hahn, Jeffrey W. "Regional Elections and Political Stability in Russia." Post-Soviet Geography and Economics 38, no. 5 (1997): 251-63.

Kernen, Beat. "Putin and the Parliamentary Elections in Russia: The Confluence (Slijanie) of Russian Political Culture and Leadership." East European Quarterly 38, no. 1 (2004): 85-107.

Kim, Byung-Yeon, and Svetlana Sidorenko-Stephenson. "Economic Experience and Market Commitment in the 1996 Russian Presidential Election." Europe-Asia Studies 51, no. 3 (1999): 467-82.

Kuzio, Taras. "Russian Policy toward Ukraine During Elections." Demokratizatsiya: The Journal of Post-Soviet Democratization 13, no. 4 (2005): 491-517.

Laverty, Nicklaus. "Limited Choices: Russian Opposition Parties and the 2007 Duma Election." Demokratizatsiya: The Journal of Post-Soviet Democratization 16, no. 4 (2008): 363-82.

Mau, V. "Stabilization, Elections, and Perspectives of Economic Growth." Problems of Economic Transition 40, no. 4 (1997): 5-26.

Mau, V., and Bruce Collins. "Russia's Political Economy in 2002 and Special Features of Economic Policy on the Eve of Elections." Problems of Economic Transition 46, no. 10 (2004): 24-46.

McAllister, Ian, and Stephen White. "'It's the Economy, Comrade!' Parties and Voters in the 2007 Russian 'Duma' Election." Europe-Asia Studies 60, no. 6 (2008): 931-57.

McFaul, Michael. "Russia's 1996 Presidential Elections." Post-Soviet Affairs 12, no. 4 (1996): 318-50.

———. "Russia's 1999 Parliamentary Elections: Party Consolidation and Fragmentation." Demokratizatsiya: The Journal of Post-Soviet Democratization 8, no. 1 (2000): 5-23.

Medvedkov, Yuri V., Olga L. Medvedkov, and George E. Hudson. "The December 1993 Russian Election: Geographical Patterns and Contextual Factors." Russian Review 55, no. 1 (1996): 80-98.

Moses, Joel C. "Political-Economic Elites and Russian Regional Elections 1999-2000: Democratic Tendencies in Kaliningrad, Perm and Volgograd." Europe-Asia Studies 54, no. 6 (2002): 905-31.

Oates, Sarah. "The 1999 Russian Duma Elections." Problems of Post-Communism 47, no. 3 (2000): 3-14.

O'Loughlin, John, Michael Shin, and Paul Talbot. "Political Geographies and Cleavages in the Russian Parliamentary Elections." Post-Soviet Geography and Economics 37, no. 6 (1996): 355-85.

Pammett, Jon H. "Elections and Democracy in Russia." Communist and Post-Communist Studies 32, no. 1 (1999): 45-60.

Remington, Thomas F., and Steven S. Smith. "Political Goals, Institutional Context, and the Choice of an Electoral System: The Russian Parliamentary Election Law." American Journal of Political Science 40, no. 4 (1996): 1253-79.

Riggs, Jonathan W., and Peter J. Schraeder. "Russia's Political Party System as a (Continued) Impediment to Democratization: The 2003 Duma and 2004 Presidential Elections in Perspective." Demokratizatsiya: The Journal of Post-Soviet Democratization 13, no. 1 (2005): 141-51.

Rose, Richard, and Evgeny Tikhomirov. "Russia's Forced-Choice Presidential Election." Post-Soviet Affairs 12, no. 4 (1996): 351-79.

Sakwa, Richard. "The 2003-2004 Russian Elections and Prospects for Democracy." Europe-Asia Studies 57, no. 3 (2005): 369-98.

Shlapentokh, Vladimir. "Review: The 1993 Russian Election Polls." Public Opinion Quarterly 58, no. 4 (1994): 579-602.

Slider, Darrel. "Elections to Russia's Regional Assemblies." Post-Soviet Affairs 12, no. 3 (1996): 243-65.

Slider, Darrell, Vladimir Gimpelson, and Sergei Chugrov. "Political Tendencies in Russia's Regions: Evidence from the 1993 Parliamentary Elections." Slavic Review 53, no. 3 (1994): 711-32.

Solnick, Steven L. "Gubernatorial Elections in Russia, 1996-1997." Post-Soviet Affairs 14, no. 1 (1998): 48-80.

Stent, Angela, and Lilia Shevtsova. "Russia's Election: No Turning Back." Foreign Policy 103 (1996): 92-109.

Tesche, Jean. "Economic Platforms of the Major Parties in the 1995 Russian Duma Elections." Comparative Economic Studies 37, no. 3 (1995): 109-19.

Theen, Rolf H. W. "Russia after the Elections: The New Look in Russian Foreign Policy: Imperialism on the March." World & I 9, no. 9 (1994): 406-25.

Treisman, Daniel. "Dollars and Democratization: The Role and Power of Money in Russia's Transitional Elections." Comparative Politics 31, no. 1 (1998): 1-21.

———. "Why Yeltsin Won." Foreign Affairs 75, no. 5 (1996): 64-77.

Tucker, Joshua A. "Economic Conditions and the Vote for Incumbent Parties in Russia, Poland, Hungary, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic from 1990 to 1996." Post-Soviet Affairs 17, no. 4 (2001): 309-31.

Urban, Joan Barth. "The Communist Parties of Russia and Ukraine on the Eve of the 1999 Elections." Demokratizatsiya: The Journal of Post-Soviet Democratization 7, no. 1 (1999): 111-34.

Vardanian, R. A., E. V. Kochkina, and Stephen D. Shenfield. "Elections: The Gender Gap." Russian Social Science Review 49, no. 3 (2008): 49-69.

Ware, Robert Bruce. "Recent Russian Federal Elections in Dagestan: Implications for Proposed Electoral Reform." Europe-Asia Studies 57, no. 4 (2005): 583-600.

White, Stephen, Matthew Wyman, and Sarah Oates. "Parties and Voters in the 1995 Russian Duma Election." Europe-Asia Studies 49, no. 5 (1997): 767-98.

Wyman, Matthew, and Stephen White. "Public Opinion, Parties and Voters in the December 1993 Russian Elections." Europe-Asia Studies 47, no. 4 (1995): 591-614.

 

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Serbia


Journal Articles

Sekelj, Laslo. "Parties and Elections: The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia--Change without Transformation." Europe-Asia Studies 52, no. 1 (2000): 57-76.

Thompson, Mark R., and Philipp Kuntz. "Stolen Elections: The Case of the Serbian October." Journal of Democracy 15, no. 4 (2004): 159-72.

 

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Slovak Republic


Journal Articles

Kopanic, Michael J., Jr. "Victory in Round Three: Meciar's 1994 Electoral Triumph." Kosmas: Czechoslovak and Central European Journal 12, no. 2 (1997): 156-91.

Tucker, Joshua A. "Economic Conditions and the Vote for Incumbent Parties in Russia, Poland, Hungary, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic from 1990 to 1996." Post-Soviet Affairs 17, no. 4 (2001): 309-31.

 

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Slovenia


Journal Articles

Matsuzato, Kimitaka. "All Kuchma's Men: The Reshuffling of Ukrainian Governors and the Presidential Election of 1999." Post-Soviet Geography and Economics 42, no. 6 (2001): 416-39.

 

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Ukraine


Books

Birch, Sarah. Elections and Democratization in Ukraine. New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 2000. 212 p.

United States Congress, Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe. Ukraine's Presidential Election : The Turning Point?: November 16, 2004, Briefing of the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe. Washington, DC: Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe, 2006. 22 p.

United States Congress, House. Committee on International Relations. Subcommittee on Europe. Urging the Gov. [Sic] of Ukraine to Ensure a Democratic, Transparent, and Fair Election Process for the Presidential Election on October 31, 2004; and Urging the Gov. [Sic] of the Republic of Belarus to Ensure a Democratic, Transparent, and Fair Election Process for Its Parliamentary Elections in the Fall of 2004 : Markup before the Subcommittee on Europe of the Committee on International Relations, House of Representatives, One Hundred Eighth Congress, Second Session, on H. Con. Res. 415 and H. Res. 652, June 17, 2004. Washington: U.S. G.P.O., 2004. 19 p.

 

Journal Articles

Birch, Sarah. "Electoral Behavior in Western Ukraine in National Elections and Referendums, 1989-91." Europe-Asia Studies 47, no. 6 (1995): 1145-75.

Bojcun, Marko. "The Ukrainian Parliamentary Elections in March-April 1994." Europe-Asia Studies 47, no. 2 (1995): 229-49.

Born, Karl Martin, and Karl Cordell. "The Strategy of the German List at the Polish Local and Regional Elections of 1998." East European Politics and Societies 15, no. 3 (2001): 625-48.

Büscher, Klemens. "Moldova after the Parliamentary Elections: A Second Chance for Reform." SEER- Southeast Europe Review for Labour and Social Affairs, no. 3 (1998): 69-79.

Clem, Ralph S., and Peter R. Craumer. "Orange, Blue and White, and Blonde: The Electoral Geography of Ukraine's 2006 and 2007 Rada Elections." Eurasian Geography and Economics 49, no. 2 (2008): 127-51.

———. "Shades of Orange: The Electoral Geography of Ukraine's 2004 Presidential Elections." Eurasian Geography and Economics 46, no. 5 (2005): 364-85.

Craumer, Peter R., and James I. Clem. "Ukraine's Emerging Electoral Geography: A Regional Analysis of the 1998 Parliamentary Elections." Post-Soviet Geography and Economics 40, no. 1 (1999): 1-26.

D'Anieri, Paul. "The Last Hurrah: The 2004 Ukrainian Presidential Elections and the Limits of Machine Politics." Communist and Post-Communist Studies 38, no. 2 (2005): 231-49.

Dyczok, Marta. "Breaking through the Information Blockade: Election and Revolution in Ukraine 2004." Canadian Slavonic Papers = Revue canadienne des slavistes 47, no. 3 (2005): 241-64.

Goldman, Minton F. "Polish-Russian Relations and the 2004 Ukrainian Presidential Elections." East European Quarterly 40, no. 4 (2006): 409-28.

Harasymiw, Bohdan. "Elections in Post-Communist Ukraine, 1994-2004: An Overview." Canadian Slavonic Papers = Revue canadienne des slavistes 47, no. 3 (2005): 191-240.

———. "Memories of the Second World War in Recent Ukrainian Election Campaigns." Journal of Ukrainian Studies 32, no. 1 (2007): 97-108.

Hill, R.J. "Profile- Moldova Votes Backwards: The 2001 Parliamentary Election." Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics 17, no. 4 (2001): 130-39.

Hinich, Melvin, Valerii Khmelko, and Peter C. Ordeshook. "A Coalition Lost, Then Found: A Spatial Analysis of Ukraine's 2006 and 2007 Parliamentary Election." Post-Soviet Affairs 24, no. 1 (2008): 63-96.

Hinich, Melvin J., Valeri Khmelko, and Peter C. Ordeshook. "Ukraine's 1998 Parliamentary Elections: A Spatial Analysis." Post-Soviet Affairs 15, no. 2 (1999): 149-85.

———. "Ukraine's 1999 Presidential Election: A Spatial Analysis." Post-Soviet Affairs 18, no. 3 (2002): 250-69.

Klobucar, Thomas F., Arthur H. Miller, and Gwyn Erb. "The 1999 Ukrainian Presidential Election: Personalities, Ideology, Partisanship, and the Economy." Slavic Review 61, no. 2 (2002): 315-44.

Kravchuk, Robert S., and Victor Chudowsky. "Ukraine's 1994 Elections as an Economic Event." Communist and Post-Communist Studies 38, no. 2 (2005): 131-65.

Kuzio, Taras. "From Kuchma to Yushchenko: Ukraine's 2004 Presidential Elections and the Orange Revolution." Problems of Post-Communism 52, no. 2 (2005): 29-44.

———. "Russian Policy toward Ukraine During Elections." Demokratizatsiya: The Journal of Post-Soviet Democratization 13, no. 4 (2005): 491-517.

Makhorkina, Anna. "Ukrainian Political Parties and Foreign Policy in Election Campaigns: Parliamentary Elections of 1998 and 2002." Communist and Post-Communist Studies 38, no. 2 (2005): 251-67.

Myagkov, Mikhail, and Peter C. Ordeshook. "The Trail of Votes in Ukraine's 1998, 1999, and 2002 Elections." Post-Soviet Affairs 21, no. 1 (2005): 56-71.

Myagkov, Misha, Peter C. Ordeshook, and Dimitry Shakin. "The Disappearance of Fraud: The Forensics of Ukraine's 2006 Parliamentary Elections." Post-Soviet Affairs 23, no. 3 (2007): 218-39.

Nikolayenko, Olena. "Press Freedom During the 1994 and 1999 Presidential Elections in Ukraine: A Reverse Wave?" Europe-Asia Studies 56, no. 5 (2004): 661-86.

Polkovsky, Valerii. "The Language of the Presidential Election Campaign in Ukraine." Canadian Slavonic Papers = Revue canadienne des slavistes 47, no. 3 (2005): 317-32.

Shaw, Denis J. B. "Crimea: Background and Aftermath of Its 1994 Presidential Election." Post-Soviet Geography 35, no. 4 (1994): 221-34.

Strikha, Maksym, and Evgeniia Kononenko. "The Ukrainian Elections of 2004: Epilogue and Prologue." Ukrainian Quarterly 61, no. 12 (2005): 16-28.

Wilson, Andrew, and Sarah Birch. "Voting Stability, Political Gridlock: Ukraine's 1998 Parliamentary Elections." Europe-Asia Studies 51, no. 6 (1999): 1039-68.

Yatsunska, Olena. "Image Myths in the 2004 Ukrainian Presidential Election Campaign." Canadian Slavonic Papers = Revue canadienne des slavistes 47, no. 3 (2005): 333-60.

———. "Local Elections in Independent Ukraine: The Case Study of Nikolayev'." Nationalities Papers 32, no. 3 (2004): 551-63.


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Internet Resources

 

General 

Administration and Cost Elections Project: The Electoral Knowledge Network

                The Administration and Cost Elections Project is a joint venture by Elections Canada, IFES, the UN, Instituto Federal Electoral – Mexico, and EISA. The website was created in 1998. The ACE website contains election data, comparative data on how countries run elections, electoral materials and advice, and region specific information.

 

Adam Carr’s Election Archives

                Dr. Adam Carr (PhD in History in 2002 from Melbourne University) is an elections enthusiast. His Election Archives, created in 1985, has recent electoral news, electoral maps, and breakdowns of voting, as well as summaries of national election results. The site is somewhat difficult to navigate at first, but provides a wealth of information on elections in many post-communist countries.

 

Comparative Study of Electoral Systems

                The Comparative Study of Electoral Systems merges data from collaborative research from teams in over 50 countries into a single, publicly accessible dataset. The website has information on the variables used in research as well as the election data. Free registration is required to access the data.

 

Centre for the Study of Public Policy

                The Centre for the Study of Public Policy was founded in 1976 and is part of the University of Aberdeen’s Department of Politics and International Relations. The site has a number of publications on social capital, the economy, health, Europe, and elections. Within the Democratization and Elections publication, there are links to election data in several East European countries.

 

Election Watch

                Election Watch is run by the Journal of Democracy. Much of the data is provided by IFES. The site contains publications on recently decided elections in developing nations and the post-communist world. Publications from 1990 to 2000 are available on the website.

 

Electoral Geography 2.0

                Electoral Geography 2.0 was started in 2006 by three contributors.  It contains current election news as well as data on past elections. It also has articles on electoral geography and links to related websites.

 

Election Guide

                Election Guide is provided by IFES and has been funded since its inception in 1998 by the U.S. Agency for International Development. It offers timely and accurate information on elections, referenda, parties and candidates, election-related laws, electoral structures, and election results. Information on the website can be searched by country, election type, and year.

 

Election Resources on the Internet: Central and Eastern Europe

                This site has links to election related sites in English and in the country languages for all of Eastern Europe. It is run by Manuel Alvarez-Rivera and is updated regularly. This site is particularly useful for linking to countries’ Central Election Commissions.

 

Erik Herron’s Guide to Politics in East Central Europe and Eurasia

                Erik Herron is the bibliographer for the American Political Science Association's Section on Representation and Electoral Systems. His site is an excellent resource for bibliographies on relevant recent articles and books, election data, research papers, and links to other relevant sites. The election data is limited but the webmaster has promised to add more over time.

 

GESIS: Election Studies from Eastern Europe

This site, run by the Leibniz Institute for Social Sciences provides datasets to researchers that allow them to search for and analyze the provided survey data. There are three groups of data on Eastern Europe: Belarus, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Croatia, Macedonia, Poland, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia and Ukraine; Project  "Free Elections, Political Parties and the Emergence of Competitive Party Systems in Eastern Europe"; and Estonia and Lithuania: "Surveys on Electoral Behavior and Political Attitudes."

 

International Foundation for Electoral Systems (IFES)

                IFES is an election assistance organization that was founded in 1987. The website contains IFES research and publications as well as information on election laws around the world. It is possible to search for information by topic or by country.

 

Lijphart Elections Archive

                The Lijphart Elections Archive in the University Library of the University of California- San Diego is a collection of district level research results for 26 countries through 2003. In addition to election results data, the website also contains links to related website. The raw data is organized by country. Not all countries of Eastern Europe are represented.

 

Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)

                OSCE’s Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR) deploys elections missions to participating countries. The website contains information on election observation, elections from the past year, and cooperation efforts with other organizations. The ODIHR also puts together a variety of reports on findings of observation missions.

 

PARLINE Database on National Parliaments

                PARLINE is a database run by the Inter-Parliamentary Union containing information on the structure and working methods of parliaments in all of the countries with a national legislature. The database can be searched by country, model, and region. It is possible to export parliamentary mailing lists as well as data and statistics from selected database fields. There are also sections on women in parliament and recent elections.

 

Political Transformation and the Electoral Process in Europe

                Political Transformation and the Electoral Process in Europe is a website authored by the University of Essex. It provides a wealth of information on election results and laws in formerly communist countries. The website also has a number of links to related websites, some with more current information.  It was last updated in 2001.

 

Proportional Representation Library

                The Proportional Representation Library is maintained by Douglas Amy of Mt. Holyoke College. It is a collection of information on proportional representation with articles for beginners and experts. The website also has a list of books on the topic and a bibliography of articles that are not online.  There is also a list of related websites.

 

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Individual Countries

 
Albania

Central Election Commission

                The Central Election Commission’s website provides official information on local (2007) and parliamentary (2001, 2005) elections, referenda, and election legislation. It also has links to the OSCE, IFES, IDEA International, and ACEEEO websites.

Armenia

Central Electoral Commission of the Republic of Armenia

                This site contains legislation relating to Armenian elections, voting constituencies, publications, and contact information for the commission. The tab titled “Voters Register of RA” is linked to a page in Armenian. The results of recent presidential, parliamentary, and local elections are available.

 

Parliamentary Elections- Internews

                This Internews site has information on the 1999 parliamentary elections in Armenia. It has the final breakdown of votes on the proportional system and the majority system.  The site also has the preliminary report from media coverage monitoring and the OSCE election observation mission report.

Bosnia-Herzegovina

Central Election Commission

                This is the official website of the Bosnia-Herzegovina Central Election Commission. Laws related to elections are available on the website, as is the agenda of the most recent commission meeting, press releases, answers to common questions about party finance auditing, and 2007 election results.

 
Bulgaria

President of the Republic of Bulgaria

                The Bulgarian President’s website has the results of the 1992, 1996, and 2001 presidential elections broken down by number of votes cast for each candidate in two rounds of voting.

 

Czech Republic

Czech Republic Statistical Office

                The Election Server of the Czech Republic Statistical Office has the results of elections and EU referenda since 1994. The information contained within each election year section varies, but can contain regional guides, party lists, election results, territorial turnout, or seat allocation.

 

Estonia

Estonian National Electoral Commission

                The Estonian National Election Commission is responsible for organizing and conducting presidential, parliamentary, local government council, and European Parliament Riigikogu vice-president and president elections, as well as referenda. The website has comprehensive election results since 1992, electoral acts, information on internet voting, and links to other websites on elections.

 

Georgia

Central Election Commission

                The Georgian Central Election Committee website, online since 2005, is in English and Georgian. Only 2008 Election information is available in English. The site has information for voters, parties, observers, and the media. It also has information on by-elections, laws, and training. The front page has recent election news.

 

Hungary

National Election Office

                The website of the National Election Office of Hungary has information on parliamentary and local election since 1998, the results of the NATO membership referendum in 1997, and the results of the 2004 EU elections. Laws relating to the elections are also available within each election section.

 

Latvia

Central Election Commission

                The Latvian Central Election Commission (CEC) is responsible for preparing for and conducting Saeima, European Parliament and local elections, as well as national referenda. The CEC website contains information on legislation, referenda, and international relations. It also has links to other countries’ CEC websites, NGO websites, and government ministries’ websites. There is little information on election results.

 

Lithuania

Central Electoral Commission of the Republic of Lithuania

The CEC site contains information CEC activities and decisions, current news and information on referenda. There is a countdown to the next election and results from the previous election.

 

Elections of the President of the Republic of Lithuania ‘97

                This site is devoted to information on the 1997 presidential elections. It is maintained by the Computer Data Processing Department of the Seimas of the Republic of Lithuania. The site has the results of the first and second rounds of voting, candidates, electoral committees, the legal basis of the elections, and general information about the elections.

 

Macedonia

Presidential Elections 1999

                This website is devoted to the 1999 Macedonian presidential election.  It has resources in Macedonian and English on the political parties, lead-up to the elections, and links to news agencies.

 

Montenegro

Elections in the Republic of Montenegro- Results and Statistics

                This site is run by The Monitoring Center-CEMI since 2000. It provides the results for parliamentary, presidential, local, and federal elections and referenda. The data goes as far back as 1990. In addition to the results, voter turnout and other information are also available.

 

Poland

National Electoral Commission (2005 | 2007)

                The Poland National Electoral Commission website provides election data in English for 2005 and 2007. For each year, documents, legislation, election committees, turnout, results, and other information are provided. For 2005, the information is for the Sejm, Senate, and President. For 2007, it is for the Sejm and President.

 

Romania

Romania Central Election Bureau

                The website of the Romania Central Election Bureau has information on the electoral participation and results in 1996, the results of the 1996 presidential, Senate, and Chamber of Deputies elections, and candidates for office. It also has the text of the 1992 law on the election of the Senate and Chamber of Deputies.

 

Russia

Central Election Commission of the Russian Federation (CEC)

                The CEC website offers English and Russian text of election and referendum legislation, elections and referendum, the CEC activities, and the participation of parties in federal elections. There is also a link to the contents of the first edition of the Journal about Elections.

 

Serbia

Republic of Serbia Republic Election Commission

                The website of the Election Commission of Serbia contains documents on elections in the country, such as legislation, electoral rolls, and electoral results (2002-2004). It also has links to key government websites.

 

Slovenia

Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia

                Election information from the Statistical Office is obtainable by selecting from the 2004 National Assembly election, the 2002 and 2006 mayoral elections, or the 2002 and 2006 municipal elections. Within these sections, there are a number of options for data manipulation, including the education and party affiliation of candidates and the electorate.

 

Ukraine

Central Election Commission of Ukraine (2006 | 2007)

                This site has information on the course of voting and a breakdown of the election results for People’s Deputies in 2006 and 2007. The information is useful for these two elections but there is no data on other elections in English. The Central Election Commission’s main page is only in Ukrainian.

 
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Compiled and edited by Jennifer Evans, March 9, 2009

Last updated: July 6, 2009.

last updated: 6/22/2010